Are Shias Kāfir or not?
What is the ruling, according to the ‘Ulama of Deoband regarding this matter: are the Shia Kāfir or not?
Fatwa : 151-148/B=03/1442
The beliefs found in the books of the Ithna Ashariyyah Shia, these beliefs are in conflict with the foundational (Islamic) beliefs and the clear definite text of the Qur’an. Therefore, majority of the scholars, including the ‘Ulama of Deoband classify them as Kāfir and Murtad.
For example,
(1) they believe in Tahrif-ul-Qur’an
(2) they believe ‘their’ twelve Imams to be infallible, they say that it is binding to believe in them and if someone does not believe in them, he or she will not be a Mu’min. The status given to the Imams is higher than that of the Ambiya’. They believe that the Imams have been given knowledge of everything in the past and of the future too.
(3) They deny the sahabi status of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr radiyallahu ‘anhu, whereas his companionship is established in the Qur’an.
(4) They say that Sayyidah Ayesha radiyallahu ‘anha is adulterous, whereas an entire Ruku’ in the Qur’an was revealed was revealed declaring her innocence.
(5) They believe in the divinity of Sayyiduna Ali radiyallahu ‘anhu.
All of these beliefs clash with the Qur’an and are against the foundational beliefs of Islam. Therefore, the early and latter day scholars all state that they (the Shia) are out of the fold of Islam and are Kāfir and Murtad.
In 1974, Maulana Abdush-Shakur wrote a fatwa stating them as Kāfir and Murtad and all the ‘Ulama of India and Pakistan signed it. Thirty-five years ago, in 1407, Maulana Manzur Ahmad Nu’mani posed the question to Muhaddith e Jalil Maulana Habib-ur-Rahman Azmi. He wrote a fatwa in which he declared them (the Shia) as Kāfir and Murtad. All the ‘Ulama of Deoband signed it.
Amongst the early day scholars, Imam Malik rahimahullah, Ibn Hazm Andalusi rahimahullah, Qadi Iyad rahimahullah, Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah, Ibn Humam rahimahullah, Mulla Ali Qari rahimahullah have written them as Kāfir and Murtad. This is also written in Fatawa Alamgiri and Fatawa Shami.
And Allah Ta’ala knows best
Dar-ul-Ifta, Dar-ul-‘Ulum Deoband


Jamiatul Ulama Western Cape


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Saturday, 09 December 2023
Friday, 25 Jumada al-awwal 1445

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